Campbell KA, Cooper S, Fahy SJ, Bowker K, Leonardi-Bee J, McEwan A, et al. 'Opt-out' referrals after identifying pregnant smokers using exhaled air carbon monoxide: Impact on engagement with smoking cessation support. Tob Control. 2016; 18(5):906-12.
In the UK, free smoking cessation support is available to pregnant women; only a minority accesses this. 'Opt-out' referrals to stop smoking services (SSS) are recommended by UK guidelines. These involve identifying pregnant smokers using exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and referring them for support unless they object.